When transporting jet fuel, a business should utilize pipelines that consist of carbon steel. The interior of each pipe may have a coating that prevents corrosion, and while managing the pipelines, many companies use cathodic protection. The fuel transfer pumps should cause the jet fuel to flow at a rate of 1.5 meters per second to 3.5 meters per second.
The Properties of the Fuel
Many jet fuels contain kerosene, which is a hydrocarbon liquid. The flash point of most of the fuels is 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and jet fuel typically has an autoignition temperature of 473 degrees Fahrenheit.
Cleaning the Pipelines
Companies frequently use cylindrical devices that can extract sedimentation from sizable pipes. By using this strategy, a business will not have to flush the lines, and in addition, the fuel can continue to flow while the device cleans the pipeline.
These products are designed to remove particulates from fuel. A business may also add cartridge filters to a diesel filtration system, and these devices will extract water from the flowing liquid.
If the fuel has been contaminated by water, the moisture will fall to the bottom of the lines because water is more dense than jet fuel. Subsequently, the liquid could freeze and prevent a substantial amount of fuel from reaching the engine.
Centrifugal pumps should be positioned at one end of a horizontal pipe, and the fuel transfer pumps generally contain relatively sizable motors. Many pipelines also have pressure regulators, which are able to slightly reduce the costs of operating the pumps.
A company can prevent corrosion by connecting the metal surface of a pipeline to an electromechanical cell, which typically generates 50 volts of electricity. Consequently, the metal will become the cathode of the cell. When using this strategy, a company will connect cables to the pipeline and to the rectifier, and a junction box is able to monitor the output of electricity.
If fuel has a high level of oxidation, sludge may develop in the liquid, and the impure formula could damage an engine over time. When selling clean diesel fuel, many businesses will mix the liquid with a small amount of phenolic antioxidants, which are derived from plants.
Eliminating Certain Metals
Several types of materials are able to increase the likelihood of oxidation, and some of these include copper, cadmium and zinc. In order to decrease the effects of trace metals, a business should use a metal deactivator, and this type of compound is able to reduce the catalytic impact of the ions in metal.
Dealing With Electric Charges
Jet fuel typically collects static electricity, and many organizations use substances that disperse the stationary charges and reduce sparking. Some of these formulas consist of esters of phosphoric acid and aliphatic amines. Furthermore, certain antistatic compounds contain glycerol monostearate.
The freezing point of jet fuels is generally between minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit and minus 53 degrees Fahrenheit. Although certain jets have heated lines, most companies will add a fuel system icing inhibitor to the pipes, and this formula consists almost entirely of ethers of ethylene glycol.
Sensors and Alarms
Above ground storage containers must be equipped with an alarm that will notify the company if the level of fuel becomes too high. A sensor may be connected to the container’s pump, and the device will be able to automatically stop the pump during an emergency.
Most tanks feature roofs that have the shape of a cone, and as a result, rainwater will slide off of the container’s upper section. In order to prevent the buildup of moisture in the tank, the interior will typically have a coating of epoxy. Moreover, a drain that is connected to a sump pump should be positioned at the bottom of the container.